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All-four

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Wikipedia logo This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at All-four. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Metro Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License 3.0 (Unported) (CC-BY-SA).

All-four is an urban public transport scheme first enunciated by the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT—New York City) in the 1930s in which different transportation technologies are chosen and implemented in an integrated system.

ModesEdit

The four modes of transport included in the scheme are:

  1. rapid transit (also known as metros, subways, elevateds)
  2. streetcars (also known as trams, trolleys, light rail transit)
  3. trolleybuses (also known as trackless trolleys, trolley coaches, trolley buses, electric buses)
  4. omnibuses (also known as buses, motor coaches)

All of these are electrically driven from a remote power source, except the last, driven by on-board gasoline engines, with the power transmitted to the driving wheels mechanically or by electric generation.

ConceptEdit

The concept was intended to cast each of the four modes as complementary, rather than competitive, in a unified transit system. Prior to promotion of this concept, the modes were often seen as separate entities, with interested parties promoting one or the other as "best," a competition that still exists today. With gasoline buses especially, routes were sometimes set up in competition with street railway companies by often-illegal entrepreneurs, looking to skim the franchised companies' fares and profits. These vehicles, sometimes no more than an automobile following streetcar routes, were called jitneys, a reference to the nickel (US five cents) fare charged.

Hierarchy of UsageEdit

Running from the bottom of the list (gasoline buses) to the top (rapid transit) all-four represents increasing capital-construction and infrastructure-maintenance costs balanced by increasing system capacity, speed of operation, operating efficiency and vehicle durability in terms of maintenance and useful life. These latter advantages result in lower capital costs going forward through longer amortization periods, lower operating costs due to efficiencies of electric and rail operation, and significantly lower labor costs due to larger vehicles and the ability to link rail vehicles into trains consisting of as many as eleven cars. Customer satisfaction also tends to increase as transport modes move up the hierarchy due to improved speed and ride comfort.

All-four as a planning toolEdit

The BMT's concept was that each mode had a niche to fill, depending upon market demand. Gasoline buses were a "starter" system, to provide service to areas of light traffic and new subdivisions. When and if demand outpaced the buses' economic usage, a new trolleybus or streetcar line would substitute for all or part of the gasoline buses' route. If the choice was to be a trolleybus, most of that route's electrical infrastructure could be used for an upgrading to a full streetcar line. The heaviest streetcar routes in turn could plot the route of heavy rapid transit lines.

All-four todayEdit

The BMT pioneered introducing gasoline buses on a large number of marginal routes through its subsidiary Brooklyn Bus Corporation, and substituted a single trolleybus for a streetcar line, the Avenue C/Cortelyou Road line in Brooklyn. As the system was taken over by the City of New York in 1940, the BMT management never had the opportunity to bring the concept to full fruition.

The scheme is still alive today, though not widely practiced. This was originally caused by the contraction of trolleybus and streetcar routes in North America and to a lesser extent in the rest of the world, but more recently by the continued contraction of market for trolleybuses, even as the market for streetcar lines in the form of light rail and pre-Metros, conventional rapid transit, and even gasoline buses in the form of bus rapid transit have gained.

Still, a few impressive systems exist. San Francisco, California, especially, has seen some of the best implementation of the hierarchy, with trolleybuses replacing diesel on some routes, and expansion of light rail lines and the BART rapid transit system. San Francisco has, upon occasion, been referred to as possessing an all-five system, if one accepts the San Francisco cable car system as having transit value beyond tourism. All-four also survives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Boston, Massachusetts and Mexico City as well as a number of cities outside the Americas, including Moscow and Saint Petersburg in Russia as well as Zürich, Switzerland.

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